What If the Moon Never Formed?

The moon has been our friendly neighbour in the sky for billions of years. It has guided us home, kept us on time, protected us, propelled us into space and has even launched dance crazes! It’s hard to fathom what we’d do without it. But for the sake of science, let’s try to envision a moonless world. What would happen to Earth? Would humans still exist?

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What If is a mini-documentary web series that takes you on an epic journey through hypothetical worlds and possibilities. Join us on an imaginary adventure through time, space and chance while we (hopefully) boil down complex subjects in a fun and entertaining way.

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What If the Sun Exploded Tomorrow?

That star at the center of our Solar System, that superhot ball of plasma that gives us heat and energy, and amazing complexions…well, it’s a ticking time bomb. The Sun is about 10 billion years old. But it’s only expected to last about another 5 billion years.
After that, the Sun will expand, becoming a red giant. Then it will shrink to become a white dwarf, a dying star, cooling for the next several billion years. Of course, we’ll all be long gone before any of that happens. But still, can you imagine what it would be like to watch the Sun blow up before your very eyes?

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What If is a mini-documentary web series that takes you on an epic journey through hypothetical worlds and possibilities. Join us on an imaginary adventure — grounded in scientific theory — through time, space and chance, as we ask what if some of the most fundamental aspects of our existence were different.

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What If We Move the Earth to a New Orbit

Did you know that the Earth’s orbit isn’t a circle, but an oval-shaped ellipse? And the length of the day is actually not 24 but 23.93 hours. We, humans, take these facts for granted. But what if one day, we had to move the entire planet to a completely new orbit and change the existing order?

Before we figure out if there’s any way to push our planet out of its orbit, let’s find out why we might need to do so! The thing is that our doomsday is approaching. Even if the planet doesn’t get overheated due to global warming, the sun will finish it off… But don’t be scared, it’s not happening tomorrow.

Other videos you might like:
The Solar System Is Not Like You Think It Is
A Potentially Habitable Super Earth Has Been Discovered
A Journey to the End of the Universe

TIMESTAMPS:
Why the sun is our planet’s biggest enemy ☀️ 0:46
Can we migrate to another planet? 2:29
Is moving the Earth to a new orbit possible❓ 3:33
Possible solutions:
– A mega-strong and long lasso 4:20
– A gigantic light sail 5:22
– Electric thrusters 5:58
What would happen if we could do that 7:49

#future #Earth #brightside

SUMMARY:
– The star is getting hotter and hotter as the centuries pass. And one day, about 5 billion years from now, the sun will inevitably turn into a swollen red giant. About 2 billion years later, the sun will swallow the Earth.
– Long before that, in about 1 billion years, the sun will have already grown more than 11% brighter. It’ll make the average temperature on Earth rise to at least 120 degrees F.
– Even this increase in temperature will lead to the World Ocean getting dramatically warmer. The water will start to evaporate like it does when you leave a pot of water in the sun.
– The hydrogen, which is a crucial building material for all kinds of living cells, will slowly but surely leak into space.
– If our descendants want to stay alive, they’ll have to migrate to another planet or maybe even galaxy!
– It’d still take thousands of years to deliver all the Earth’s inhabitants to their new home. Also, it’d take unimaginable amounts of fuel – even if people flew no further than to another planet in the Solar System.
– That’s why another option will likely come into play: people will have to change the orbit of the planet before the disaster strikes to avoid the tragic outcome!
– Scientists have even calculated that to keep leading a comfortable life (or at least survive), people would have to change the orbit of the planet so that it’s 9.5% further from the sun than it is now.
– At first, a mega-strong and long lasso may seem to be the simplest solution.
– But where can you find a material strong enough to carry the weight of the whole planet? Besides, how can you be sure that this asteroid will take you exactly where you need to get?
– Maybe an effective way out would be moving the planet out of its orbit with the help of a gigantic light sail?
– But once people calculate all the details, they’ll find out that the reflective disk of the light sail would have to be more than 19 times bigger than the diameter of the planet!
– An electric thruster could become a cool alternative, especially if we talk about ion drives! Come to think of it, this method could work out! And if people managed this unprecedented feat and DID change the orbit of the planet as planned, there’d be some noticeable changes.
– Our planet’s orbital speed would drop down from 18.6 to 17.7 miles per second.

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What is the Universe Made Of? Formula of the universe – Space Science Documentary

Composition. The Universe is composed almost completely of dark energy, dark matter, and ordinary matter. Other contents are electromagnetic radiation (estimated to constitute from 0.005% to close to 0.01% of the total mass-energy of the Universe) and antimatter.

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Take A Journey Into The Center Of The Galaxy – How Do You Find Exoplanets?

We live in the Milky Way Galaxy, which is a collection of stars, gas, dust, and a supermassive black hole at it’s very center. Our Galaxy is a spiral galaxy, which are rotating structures that are flat (disk-like) like a DVD when looked upon edge-on. There is also a bulge in the middle that consists of mostly old stars. When you look at a spiral galaxy face-on, you can see beautiful spiral arms where stars are being born. Our solar system is in the Orion arm, and we are about 25,000 light years (2.5 X 10^17 miles) from the very center of the Galaxy.

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How Galaxies Are Born – Star and Galaxy Formation in the Early Universe

The very first stars likely formed when the Universe was about 100 million years old, prior to the formation of the first galaxies. … This started the cosmic chemical enrichment that led to the formation of the stars that we see in the Milky Way today, to rocky planets and eventually humans.

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How the Universe Works Formation and Evolution of Planets in Universe – Space Discovery Documentary

Our Milky Way Galaxy was once thought to comprise the entire known universe. Today our universe encompasses many billions of galaxies, and its history can be recounted back to its earliest moments.

Our universe began with an explosion of space itself – the Big Bang. Starting from extremely high density and temperature, space expanded, the universe cooled, and the simplest elements formed. Gravity gradually drew matter together to form the first stars and the first galaxies. Galaxies collected into groups, clusters, and superclusters. Some stars died in supernova explosions, whose chemical remnants seeded new generations of stars and enabled the formation of rocky planets. On at least one such planet, life evolved to consciousness. And it wonders, “Where did I come from?”

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How To Use A Star Chart

Star charts are super useful for finding objects in the night sky. They are an essential tool in astronomy. Also known as a planisphere, this simple tools takes just a few minutes to master, but can help facilitate a lifetime of star gazing. Clear skies!

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What has Hubble seen in our Solar System? | Hubble Space Images Episode 9

Hubble doesn’t just look at distant nebula and galaxies, but has also observed celestial bodies and events in our own solar system. So what has it seen? Images from Hubble / NASA / ESA.

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What If Earth Was the Only Planet in the Solar System?

Imagine never being able to dream of landing on Mars or traveling to Saturn.
Not because it’s impossible to get there, but because they didn’t exist. Because Earth was the only planet in our solar system. What would the night sky look like? Where would Earth be located? And how would humanity evolve?

Watch more what-if scenarios:
Planet Earth:
The Cosmos:
Technology:
Your Body:
Humanity:

Tweet us your what-if question to suggest an episode:

What If elsewhere:
Instagram:
Twitter:
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Feedback and inquiries:

What If is a mini-documentary web series that takes you on an epic journey through hypothetical worlds and possibilities. Join us on an imaginary adventure — grounded in scientific theory — through time, space and chance, as we ask what if some of the most fundamental aspects of our existence were different.

Read more